Pham Phuong Duy
54 years old. He and his wife Ng Uyen Thi Thuy (45) own a 1,5 ha coffee plantation in Eakpam since 1990. They have four children.
Since 2000, temperatures are higher. There’s lack of water and very dry periods but there are also crazy rains, sometimes too much, sometimes too little.
How to cope? We can reduce the temperature on the coffee plants through shading, this method also helps reducing CO2 emissions and gives an additional source of income. We can also grow cover crops to protect soil moisture and prevent erosion and optimize the use of fertilizers by applying in trench and cover. If everyone did this, it would reduce the risks a lot. But we know this because we have received climate change training. When we look around at the people that did not receive this training, we see they know a little bit about climate change, but not enough. Everyone uses shade trees, but then for extra income. After the climate change training, other farmers in the region learned from the demo plots and are now looking for cover crop seedlings.
45 years old. Father of 2. He is the manager of the Coffee Climate Care (C3) project for the DAKMAN pilot group, Buon Ma Thuot.
I am the certification manager of the trader Dakman in Vietnam. For the C3 I was the coordinator of the trainings, which included planning, monitoring the trainings, but also giving trainings to both trainers and farmers. Now everyone, everywhere, knows about climate change. The government informs on TV and newspapers about it, but they give very general information. Especially with regards to coffee production, there is a lot of negative news. A couple of years ago coffee production really expanded in Vietnam, causing a lot of deforestation. In fact, this is one of the biggest contributions of Vietnam to climate change. Now there are 650.000 ha under coffee and a lot of that came from forests. Plus coffee needs a lot more water than other crops and also a lot of fertilizers. On average, for 1 ha you need at least 0.2 tonnes! So, the project was very good to disseminate information. The plan, the activities, the details of C3 were all very professional and useful.
What I especially liked about the training was the way we approached it: step by step and participatory. If you involve people in the training, they find the information out themselves and remember it better. And we followed this approach on the higher and lower levels: For the planning and management we first did participatory vulnerability assessments where we identified the biggest risks and most important adaptation measures together with all trainers in a participatory method. Now we follow a similar approach with the farmers in the Farmer Field Schools. First they find out the information themselves and then we discuss it. That way the information is good quality and they remember it well.
Now that the project is over I think it would be great to have a project like the C3 in a different area. Basically, I would follow the same approach as in the C3 project: First conduct a baseline study to see what the situation is in the area and develop a plan based on this. Also, as in C3, I would work with local people as much as possible to get their involvement. This is the key success factor of such a project.
H’ Oanh Nie Kdam
She is 38 years old. Married to Y’Jang Hmock (42), has 1 daugther, Eakmak. The husband has a different job, the neighbors help her with harvesting.
The weather conditions have changed. The dry seasons are very long and very dry. The rainy seasons are shorter, but have very strong rains sometimes. This leads to more soil erosion.
We now plant shade trees, check soil fertility, balance NPK, minimize chemical fertilizers, use compost and manure.
It is very difficult to foresee the productivity in the future. Water will determine the future. If climate change is coming, a lack of water will make production difficult. Then people will change to other crops.
In the beginning, planting coffee was easy, the work was simple and it grew well. But now the coffee does not grow well any more. There are more and more pests and diseases. Every year we graft 50 trees with new varieties.
Y’ Nham Mlo
40 years old, married to H’ Dloe Nie (37). They are second generation coffee farmers since 1994 and run a 1.5 ha coffee plantation in Eakmat. They have four children.
The environment is not so good anymore. It is very hot and there are crazy rains. Sometimes it rains when we don’t need it, and it doesn’t when we need it.
When we plant new trees we put manure and limit the use of chemical fertilizers. [To avoid the risks of climate change].
This makes trees grow faster; the leaves are dark green. The trees have also higher productivity and less diseases.
The biggest problem in the future will be that productivity goes down, because the weather will become more difficult with less rain and lack of water.